Article 5418

Title of the article

FACTORS OF LYMPH FLOW AND THORACIC DUCT 

Authors

Petrenko Valeriy Mikhaylovich, Doctor of medical sciences, professor, senior staff scientist, “OLME” LLC (13/7 11-Krasnoarmeyskaya street, Saint-Petersburg, Russia), E-mail: deptanatomy@hotmail.com 

Index UDK

611.4 

DOI

10.21685/2072-3032-2018-4-5 

Abstract

Background. The thoracic duct is often the object of morphological and physiological studies. The lymphatic flow in the thoracic duct has a pendulum character. Its regulation is determined by factors of two groups: the vasal – structures of the walls of the lymphatic bed, primarily – permanent and multiple valves (passive limitation of reverse lymph flow) and smooth myocytes (active maintenance of the rate of lymph flow); the extravasal – effects on the lymphatic bed of the surrounding organs, vessels and other structures. A study to consider the features of the shape, structure of the wall and topography of the thoracic duct from the standpoint of compliance with the factors of lymph flow in the thoracic duct.
Results. The results showed a correlation of structural features and topography of the thoracic duct. This indicates the adaptation of the thoracic duct to regional and local conditions of lymph flow so that external factors of lymph flow are maximally involved in the organization of lymph flow from the thoracic duct, including by minimizing the negative effect of gravity when upright in man. The same is aimed at the development of valves and muscle of the thoracic duct (vasal or internal factors of lymph flow), uneven throughout it, which reaches the greatest extent in places of the same resistance to direct lymph flow in the duct. The topography of the thoracic duct describes his environment-a source of extravasal factors of lymph flow, they affect the lymph flow through the duct walls. The latter is under the influence of extravasal, external factors of lymph flow (~topography of the thoracic duct), and the lymph flow itself, along with it is a source of its vasal or internal factors.
Conclusions. The findings suggest that the external and internal structure of the thoracic duct as a whole and their local features throughout it can be judged on the passive lymph flow in the duct and its extravasal factors. Active lymph flow in the thoracic duct occurs when muscle contraction of its walls as a result of inhibition of the base, passive lymph flow in the duct, with a deficit of energy of extravasal factors of lymph flow and duct valves. 

Key words

factors of lymph flow, thoracic duct 

Download PDF
References

1. Zhdanov D. A. Funktsional'naya anatomiya limfaticheskoy sistemy [Functional anatomy of lymphatic system]. Gorkiy: Izd-vo Gor'kovsk. med. in-ta, 1940, 375 p.
2. Borodin Yu. I., Sapin M. R., Etingen L. E. et al. Obshchaya anatomiya limfaticheskoy sistemy [General anatomy of lymphatic system]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1990, 243 p.
3. Borodin Yu. I., Sapin M. R., Etingen L. E. et al. Funktsional'naya anatomiya limfaticheskogo uzla [Functional anatomy of lymph node]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1992, 257 p.
4. Gareev R. A., Kim T. D., Luchinin Yu. S. Faktory limfotoka [Factors of lymph flow]. Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1982, 128 p.
5. Zhdanov D. A. Khirurgicheskaya anatomiya grudnogo protoka i glavnykh limfaticheskikh kollektorov i uzlov tulovishcha [Surgical anatomy of the trunk’s thoracic duct and main lymphatic collectors and nodes]. Gorkiy: Izd-vo Gor'kovsk. med. in-ta, 1945, 308 p.
6. Zhdanov D. A. Obshchaya anatomiya i fiziologiya limfaticheskoy sistemy [General anatomy and physiology of the lymphatic system]. Leningrad: Medgiz, 1952, 336 p.
7. Konenkov V. I., Borodin Yu. I., Lyubarskiy M. S. Limfologiya [Lymphology]. Novosibirsk: Manuskript, 2012, 1104 p.
8. Minnebaev M. M., Mukhutdinova F. I., Tagirova D. R., Mukhutdinov D. A. Kazanskiy meditsinskiy zhurnal [Kazan medical journal]. 2006, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 43–48.
9. Petrenko V. M. Evolyutsiya i ontogenez limfaticheskoy sistemy [Evolution and ontogenesis of the lymphatic system]. 2nd ed. Saint-Petersburg: DEAN, 2003, 336 p.
10. Petrenko V. M. Aktual'nye voprosy sovremennoy morfologii i fiziologii: sb. nauch. tr., posvyashc. 100-letiyu osnovaniya SPbGMA im. I. I. Mechnikova [Current issues of modern morphology and physiology: collected articles, dedicated to 100 anniversary of the Mechnikov North-West State Medical University]. Saint-Petersburg: DEAN, 2007, pp. 57–139.
11. Petrenko V. M. Aktual'nye voprosy sovremennoy morfologii i fiziologii: sb. nauch. tr., posvyashc. 100-letiyu osnovaniya SPbGMA im. I. I. Mechnikova [Current issues of modern morphology and physiology: collected articles, dedicated to 100 anniversary of the Mechnikov North-West State Medical University]. Saint-Petersburg: DEAN, 2008, pp. 9–23.
12. Petrenko V. M. Funktsional'naya morfologiya limfaticheskikh sosudov [Functional morphology of lymphatic vessels]. 2nd ed. Saint-Petersburg: DEAN, 2008, 400 p.
13. Petrenko V. M. Limfaticheskaya sistema. Anatomiya i razvitie [Lymphatic system. Anatomy and progress]. 4th ed. Saint-Petersburg: DEAN, 2010, 112 p.
14. Petrenko V. M. Konstitutsiya limfaticheskoy sistemy [Constitution of lymphatic system]. Saint-Petersburg: DEAN, 2014, 60 p.
15. Tsyb A. F. Funktsional'naya anatomiya i patologiya limfaticheskoy sistemy cheloveka (po dannym klinicheskoy limfografii): avtoref. dis. d-ra. med. nauk [Functional anatomy and pathology of the human lymphatic system (according to clinical lymphography): author's abstract of dissertation to apply for the degree of the doctor of medical sciences]. Obninsk: Izd-vo NII med. radiologii AMN SSSR, 1978, 36 p.
16. Tsyb A. F., Chepelenko G. V., Nestayko O. V. Vestnik rentgenologii i radiologii [Bulletin of roentgenology and radiology]. 1975, no. 1, pp. 60–66.
17. Mall G. D. Z. Anat. [Anatomy]. 1933, vol. 100, part 4, pp. 521–538.
18. Horstmann E. Morphol. Jarb. 1951, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 483–510.
19. Horstmann E. Pflug. Arch. 1959, vol. 269, no. 6, pp. 511–513.
20. Mislin H. Experientia. 1961, vol. 17, pp. 19–30.
21. Mislin H. Herz Kreislauf. [Cardiovascula.]. 1974, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 566–576.
22. Mislin H. Lymphangiology. Stuttgart; New York: Schaffauerverlag, 1983, pp. 165–175.
23. Buy J., Argaud R. Bibliogr. Anat. 1906, vol. 15, pp. 312–315.
24. Correia M. Folia anat. Univ. Conimbrig. 1926, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–20.
25. El Zawahry M. D., Saved N. M., El-Awady H. M. et al. Int. Surg. 1983, vol. 68, pp. 135–138.
26. Fruschelli C., Simoni P. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 1970, vol. 19, pp. 809–812.
27. Jacobsson S.-I. Clinical anatomy and pathology af the thoracic duct. Stockholm: Alnigwist Wiksell, 1972, 103 p.
28. Kajava Y. Acta Soc., med. Fen. “duodecium”. Helzinki, 1921, T. III, Fasc. 1, pp. 1–24.
29. Kampmeier O. F. Evolution and comparative morphology of lymphatic system. Springfield: C. Thomas, 1969, 620 p.
30. Kampmeier O. F. Anat. Rec. 1929, vol. 38, pp. 225–231.
31. Kausel H. W., Reeve T. S., Stein A. A. et al. J. Thor. Surg. 1957, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 631–642.
32. Kunel W. Z. Zellforsch. 1966, vol. 70, pp. 519–531.
33. Lee S. H., Wen H. J., Shen C. L. J. Anat. 1993, vol. 182, pp. 205–212.
34. Pflug J. J., Calcan J. S. Brit. J. Surg. 1968, vol. 55, pp. 911–916.
35. Ranvier L. C. r. Acad. Sci. 1896, vol. 123, pp. 1038–1041.
36. Rusznyak J., Foldi M., Szabo G. Lymphologie: physiologie und pathologie der Lymphgefasse und des Lymphreislaufes [Lymphology: physiology and pathology of the lymphatic vessels and lymphatic circulation]. Budapest: Akademiai Kiado, 1969, 625 p.
37. Shimada K., Sato I. Clin. Anat. 1997, vol. 10, pp. 163–172.
38. Wenzel J. Handbuch der Allgemeinen Pathologie [Manual of general pathology]. Berlin; Heidelberg; New York: Springer, 1972, vol. 3/6, pp. 94–149.
39. Zerzetto N. L., Ripari W., De Freitas V., Seullner G. J. Morphol. 1977, vol. 153, no. 3, pp. 363–369.

 

Дата создания: 17.06.2019 13:27
Дата обновления: 17.06.2019 14:14